Írsc Word Order

The basic word order of affirmative verb phrases is SUBJ FINITE (ADV) INFINITE (ADV) PART OBJ ADV.

The basic word order of noun phrases is DEF NUM ADJ N (POSS) PP, where determiners, adjectives, and nouns must agree in definiteness, number, gender, and case. The noun is followed by a possessive determiner only when another determiner is also in use.

The basic word order of prepositional phrases is PP OBJ.

Írsc Non-Personal Pronouns

The indefinite pronoun is as follows:

sg. m./f. nom./acc. noccar
sg. n. nom./acc. noccad
sg. m. dat. noccaram
sg. f. dat. noccarre
sg. n. dat. noccara
sg. m./n. gen. noccars
sg. f. gen. noccarrar
pl. m./f. nom./acc. noccarar
pl. n. nom./acc. noccar
pl. m./f./n. dat. noccaram
pl. m./f./n. gen. noccarra

The negative pronoun is as follows:

sg. m./f. nom./acc. inge
sg. n. nom./acc. icce
sg. m. dat. ingam
sg. f. dat. ingre
sg. n. dat. inga
sg. m./n. gen. inskes
sg. f. gen. ingrar
pl. m./f. nom./acc. ingar
pl. n. nom./acc. inge
pl. m./f./n. dat. ingam
pl. m./f./n. gen. ingra

The interrogative pronoun is as follows:

sg. m./f. nom./acc. cver
sg. n. nom./acc. cverd
sg. m. dat. cvérem
sg. f. dat. cverre
sg. n. dat. cvére
sg. m./n. gen. cvers
sg. f. gen. cverrar
pl. m./f. nom./acc. cvérer
pl. n. nom./acc. cver
pl. m./f./n. dat. cvérem
pl. m./f./n. gen. cverra

Írsc Adpositions

The following is a preliminary list of írsc adpositions, which will require significant revision before it is usable as a list of adpositions, so expect more changes here.

(ígegnam +acc ‘through’

ov +acc

(a) [motion] ‘over’, ‘across’

(b) [time] ‘during’, ‘in’

um +acc

(a) [motion] ‘around’, ‘over’, ‘across’

(b) [time] ‘during’, ‘in’

(c) ‘about’, ‘concerning’

innan +gen ‘within’

(ó/ímédal +gen ‘among’, ‘between’

(ó/ímille/millam +gen ‘among’, ‘between’

til +gen

(a) ‘to’, ‘towards’

(b) ‘regarding’, ‘concerning’

(c) ‘to’, ‘until’

av +dat

(a) ‘off’, ‘from’

(b) [time] ‘from’

(c) [partitive] ‘of’

(d) [passive] ‘by’

(e) [cause] ‘of’, ‘from’, ‘because of’

ad +dat

(a) ‘at’, ‘to’, ‘towards’

(b) ‘at’, ‘in’

(c) ‘from’

(d) ‘according to’

fró +dat

(a) ‘from’

(b) ‘concerning’, ‘about’

(ígegan +dat

(a) ‘against’

(b) ‘towards’

heó +dat

(a) ‘at someone’s (house)’

(b) ‘close to’, ‘next to’, ‘by’

(c) ‘past’

(d) ‘compared with’

nér +dat ‘near’

ór +dat ‘out of’, ‘from’

undan +dat ‘away from’

ó +acc

(a) ‘onto’, ‘on’, ‘to’

(b) ‘during’, ‘at’, ‘in’

ó +dat

(a) ‘on’, ‘to’

(b) ‘during’, ‘at’, ‘in’

(c) inalienable possession

efter +acc [time] ‘after’

efter +dat [motion] ‘after’, ‘following’

fíre +acc

(a) [motion] ‘before’, ‘in front of’

(b) [directional] ‘over’, ‘past’

(c) [time] ‘before’

(d) ‘in return for’, ‘in place of’

fíre +dat

(a) [location] ‘before’, ‘in front of’

(b) ‘ago’

í +acc

(a) ‘into,  ‘in’, ‘to’

(b) [time] ‘during’, ‘in’, ‘at’

í +dat ‘in’

med +acc ‘with’

med +dat

(a) ‘together with’

(b) [instrumental] ‘with’

(c) [manner] ‘with’, ‘in’, ‘by’

(d) ‘among’

under +acc [motion] ‘under’

under +dat [location] ‘under’

vid +acc

(a) ‘near’, ‘by’

(b) [directional] ‘to’, ‘towards’, ‘vis-à-vis’

vid +dat ‘against’

íver +acc [motion] ‘over’, ‘above’

íver +dat [location] ‘over’, ‘above’

útan +acc/gen

(a) ‘outside’

(b) ‘without’

ón +acc/dat/gen ‘without’

Írsc Verb Conjugation

Verbs have the following conjugation:

  • First conjugation weak verbs are distinguished by palatalization of the infinitive and present participle and i-umlaut, for short-stem first conjugation weak verbs in all forms except the past participle and the past indicative, and for long-stem first conjugation weak verbs in all forms. Finite stem vowels are leveled to the 3rd sg.
  • /ər/ (or after vowels, /r/) is the present indicative active ending. However long-stem first conjugation and third conjugation weak verbs receive palatalization in the present finite.
  • /əst/ (or after vowels, /st/) is the present indicative middle ending. However long-stem first conjugation and third conjugation weak verbs receive palatalization in the present finite.
  • /əst/ (or after vowels, /st/) is the strong preterite indicative middle ending.
  • /ə/ is the infinitive ending.
  • /dʲə/ (or after fortis obstruents, /tʲə/) is the weak preterite indicative active ending, except for second conjugation weak verbs, for which it is /ədʲə/.
  • /dʲəst/ (or after fortis obstruents, /tʲəst/) is the weak preterite indicative middle ending, except for second conjugation weak verbs, for which it is /ədʲəst/.
  • Second conjugation weak verbs ending in consonants have /ə/ as an imperative ending.
  • /ə/ with palatalization is the present subjunctive active ending.
  • /əst/ with palatalization is the present subjunctive middle ending.
  • /ə/ with palatalization and i-umlaut is the strong past subjunctive active ending.
  • /əst/ with palatalization and i-umlaut is the strong past subjunctive midde ending.
  • /dʲə/ (or after fortis obstruents, /tʲə/) with i-umlaut is the weak past subjunctive active ending, except for second conjugation weak verbs, for which it is /ədʲə/.
  • /dʲəst/ (or after fortis obstruents, /tʲəst/) with i-umlaut is the weak past subjunctive middle ending, except for second conjugation weak verbs, for which it is /ədʲəst/.

Írsc Definite Article Declension

The írsc definite article has the following declension:
sg. m./f. nom./acc. hin -/(ʲə)n/
sg. n. nom./acc. hid -/(ʲə)d/
sg. m. dat. hínam -/(ʲə)nəm/
sg. f. dat. hinne -/(ʲə)nʲnʲə/
sg. n. dat. hína -/(ʲə)nə/
sg. m./n. gen. hins -/(ʲə)ns/
sg. f. gen. hinnar -/(ʲə)nnər/
pl. nom./acc. hínar -/(ʲə)nər/
pl. dat. hínam -/nəm/
pl. gen. hinna -/(n)nə/

Írsc Demonstrative Declension

The proximal demonstrative has the following declension:

3rd sg. m. nom./acc. tese dat. tesam gen. tesa
3rd sg. f. nom./acc. tese dat. tese gen. tesar
3rd sg. n. nom./acc. tetta dat. tesa gen. tesa
3rd pl. m./f. nom./acc. tesar dat. tesam gen. tesa
3rd pl. n. nom./acc. tese dat. tesam gen. tesa

The distal demonstrative has the following declension:

3rd. sg. m. nom./acc. tan dat. tém gen. tes
3rd. sg. f. nom./acc. tan dat. térre gen. térrar
3rd sg. n. nom./acc. tad dat. tví gen. tes
3rd pl. m./f. nom./acc.  dat. tém gen. térra
3rd pl. n. nom./acc.  dat. tém gen. térra

Írsc Numbers

Írsc has the following numbers:

one m. nom./acc. én dat. énam gen. éns
one f. nom./acc. én dat. énne gen. énnar
one n. nom./acc. éd dat. énam gen. éns
one pl. nom./acc. énar dat. énam gen. énna
two tvé
three trí
four feór
five fim
six secs
seven seó
eight ótta
nine nía
ten tía
eleven elva
twelve tólf
thirteen trettan
fourteen feórtan
fifteen fimtan
sixteen secstan
seventeen seótan
eighteen óttan
nineteen nítan
twenty túgha
thirty trítegh
forty feórtegh
fifty fimtegh
sixty secstegh
seventy seótegh
eighty óttegh
ninety nítegh
hundred hundrad
thousand túsand

Írsc Adjectival Declension

Strong adjectival declension

sg. m. nom./acc. -/0/
sg. f. nom./acc. L -/0/
sg. n. nom./acc. -/d/
sg. m. dat. L -/əm/
sg. f. dat. -/rʲə/
sg. n. dat. L -/ə/
sg. m./n. gen. -/s/
sg. f. gen. -/rər/
pl. nom./acc. -/ər/
pl. dat. L -/əm/
pl. gen. -/rə/

Weak adjectival declension

sg. m. nom. -/ʲə/
sg. m. acc./dat./gen. -/ə/
sg. f./n. nom./acc./dat./gen. -/ə/
pl. nom./acc./gen. -/ə/
pl. dat. -/əm/

Active participle/comparative degree declension

sg. m. nom. -/ʲə/
sg. m. acc./dat./gen. -/ə/
sg. f. nom./acc./dat./gen. -/ʲə/
sg. n. nom./acc./dat./gen. -/ə/
pl. nom./acc./gen. -/ʲə/
pl. dat. -/əm/

Degree declension

pos. -/0/-
comp. -/(ə)r/-
super. -/(ə)st/-