Írsc Nominal Declension

Masculine strong nouns

sg. nom./acc. -/0/ dat. -/ʲə/ gen. -/sˠ/
pl. nom./acc. -/ərˠ/ dat. L -/əmˠ/ gen. -/ə/

Long-stem palatalizing masculine strong nouns

sg. nom./acc. -/ʲə/ dat. -/ʲə/ gen. -/ʲəs/
pl. nom./acc. -/ər/ dat. L -/əm/ gen. -/ə/

Short-stem palatalizing masculine strong nouns

sg. nom./acc. -/0/ dat. -/ʲə/ gen. -/s/
pl. nom./acc. -/ʲər/ dat. L -/ʲəm/ gen. -/ʲə/

Feminine strong nouns

sg. nom./acc. L -/0/ dat. L -/0/ gen. -/ər/
pl. nom./acc. -/ər/ dat. L -/əm/ gen. -/ə/

Long-stem palatalizing feminine strong nouns

sg. nom. L -/0/ acc./dat. L -/ʲə/ gen. -/ər/
pl. nom./acc. -/ər/ dat. L -/əm/ gen. -/ə/

Short-stem palatalizing feminine strong nouns

sg. nom./acc. L -/0/ dat. L -/0/ gen. -/ʲər/
pl. nom./acc. -/ʲər/ dat. L -/ʲəm/ gen. -/ʲə/

Neuter strong nouns

sg. nom./acc. -/0/ dat. -/ʲə/ gen. -/s/
pl. nom./acc. L -/0/ dat. L -/əm/ gen. -/ə/

Long-stem palatalizing neuter strong nouns

sg. nom./acc. -/ʲə/ dat. -/ʲə/ gen. -/ʲəs/
pl. nom./acc. L -/ʲə/ dat. L -/əm/ gen. -/ə/

Short-stem palatalizing neuter strong nouns

sg. nom./acc. -/0/ dat. -/ʲə/ gen. -/s/
pl. nom./acc. L -/0/ dat. L -/ʲəm/ gen. -/ʲə/

Masculine weak nouns

sg. nom. -/ʲə/ acc./dat./gen. -/ə/
pl. nom./acc. -/ə/ dat. -/əm/ gen. -/ə/

Feminine weak nouns

sg. nom. -/ə/ acc./dat./gen. L -/ə/
pl. nom./acc. L -/ər/ dat. L -/əm/ gen. -/nə/

Neuter weak nouns

sg. nom./acc./dat./gen. -/ə/
pl. nom./acc. L -/ə/ dat. L -/əm/ gen. -/nə/

Írsc Possessive Determiner Declension

The declension of min is as follows; this is also followed by tin and sin.

sg. m. nom./acc. min
sg. f. nom./acc. mína
sg. n. nom./acc. mit
sg. m. dat. mínam
sg. f. dat. minne
sg. n. dat. mína
sg. m./n. gen. míns
sg. f. gen. minnar
pl. m./f. nom./acc. mínar
pl. n. nom./acc. mín
pl. dat. mínam
pl. gen. minna

The declension of vór is as follows:

sg. m. nom./acc. vór
sg. f. nom./acc. vóra
sg. n. nom./ac. vórt
sg. m. dat. vóram
sg. f. dat. vórre
sg. n. fat. vóra
sg. m./n. gen. vórs
sg. f. gen. vórrar
pl. m./f. nom./acc. vórar
pl. n. nom./acc. vór
pl. dat. vóram
pl. gen. vórra

The declension of ídar is as follows:

sg. m. nom./acc. ídar
sg. f. nom./acc. idra
sg. n. nom./acc. ídart
sg. m. dat. idram
sg. f. dat. ídarre
sg. n. dat. idra
sg. m./n. gen. ídars
sg. f. gen. ídarrar
pl. m./f. nom./acc. idrar
pl. n. nom./acc. ídar
pl. dat. idram
pl. gen. ídarra

Írsc Personal Pronouns

Írsc has the following personal pronouns:

1st sg. nom. egh acc. megh dat. mér gen. mín
2nd sg. nom.  acc. tegh dat. tér gen. tín
Refl. nom. – acc. segh dat. sér gen. sín
1st. pl. nom. vé acc. os dat. os gen. vór
2nd pl. nom. é acc. idar dat. idar gen. ídar
3rd sg. m. nom. han acc. han dat. hónam gen. hans
3rd sg. f. nom. hon acc. hon dat. henne gen. hennar
3rd sg. n. nom. tad acc. tad dat. tví gen. tes
3rd pl. m./f. nom.  acc.  dat. tém gen. térra
3rd pl. n. nom.  acc.  dat. tém gen. térra

Írsc Orthography

Írsc orthography is influenced by Irish orthography, but due to the differences between Írsc and Irish phonologies has remained separate in practice.

One of the obvious ways in which Írsc orthography is influenced by Irish orthography is its heavy use of the fada to mark long vowels. Another way in which Irish orthography has influenced Írsc orthography is the use of vowel letters to mark palatalization and velarization on consonants.

However, marking of palatalization is different in Írsc orthography from in Irish orthography. A palatalized consonant in Írsc must be followed by a vowel in the same word, so there is no need to mark palatalization both before and after palatalized consonants (clusters of consonants must agree in palatalization). Therefore, palatalization of consonants is marked solely with the following vowel letter.

The vowel letters, by themselves, are:

i í e é a á o ó u ú, for /ɪ iː ɛ eː a aː ɔ oː ʊ uː/

Front vowel letters (e é i í, for /ɛ eː ɪ iː/ as well as /ə/) by themselves automatically palatalize preceding consonants. Central or back vowels must be marked with a front vowel letter to palatalize preceding consonants (ea eá eo eó iu iú, for /a aː ɔ oː ʊ uː/).

There is another vowel phoneme, /ə/, which is marked a if the preceding consonant is not palatalized and e if the preceding consonant is palatalized.

The following consonants are marked as shown below:

pp pp tt tt cc cc, for /ʰp ʰpʲ ʰt ʰtʲ ʰc ʰk/
p p t t c c, for /pʰ pʲʰ tʰ tʲʰ cʰ kʰ/
b b d d g g, for /b bʲ d dʲ ɟ g/
mm mm nn nn, for /mː mʲː nː nʲː/
m m n n n n, for /m mʲ n nʲ (ɲ ŋ)/
f f s s h h, for /f fʲ s ʃ ç h/
v v j gh, for /w vʲ j ɣ/
rr rr ll ll, for /rː rʲː lː lʲː/
r r l l, for /r rʲ l lʲ/

The pairs of identical graphemes are non-palatalized/palatalized pairs, which are distinguished by the following vowel letter.

Írsc Phonology

Írsc has the phonology of a North Germanic language under considerable influence from Irish and Scottish Gaelic. An extensive system of palatalization has developed, the Old Norse falling diphthongs have been monophthongized, the Old Norse rounded front vowels have been unrounded, the Old Norse long consonants have been shortened (except for long sonorants, and note that long fortis plosives’ length is preserved as preaspiration), the Old Norse non-sibilant coronal fricatives have been stopped, and an Irish-style system of tense and lax vowels has developed.

This has resulted in the following consonant system:

ʰpˠ ʰpʲ ʰt̪ˠ ʰtʲ ʰc ʰk
pˠʰ pʲʰ t̪ˠʰ tʲʰ cʰ kʰ
bˠ bʲ d̪ˠ dʲ ɟ g
mˠ mʲ n̪ˠ nʲ (ɲ ŋ)
fˠ fʲ sˠ ʃ ç h
w vʲ j ɣ
rˠ rʲ lˠ lʲ

Note that phonemically velarization and dental POA will not be marked from here on.

It also has the following vowel system:

ɪ iː ɛ eː a aː ə ɔ oː ʊ uː